Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogenic substance that was extensively investigated by psychiatrists during the 1950s and 1960s. Researchers were interested in the unique effects induced by this substance, some of which resemble symptoms seen in schizophrenia. Moreover, during that period LSD was studied and used for the treatment of several mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, addiction and personality disorders. Despite this long history of research, how LSD induces its specific effects on a neuronal level has been relatively unclear. In recent years there has been a revival of research in hallucinogenic drugs and their possible clinical applications. These contemporary studies in the UK and Switzerland include neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this review, we collect and interpret these recent neuroimaging findings. Overall, previous results across studies indicate that LSD administration is associated with extensive alterations in functional brain connectivity, measuring the correlated activities between different brain regions. The studies mostly reported increases in connectivity between regions and, more specifically, consistently found increased connectivity within the thalamocortical system. These latter observations are in agreement with models proposing that hallucinogenic drugs exert their effects by inhibiting cerebral filtering of external and internal data. However, studies also face several limitations, including potential biases of neuroimaging measurements.
Psilocybin for Depression
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