Production and Supply


in Drug Policy Library,Drug Policy Library Featured,Uncategorized

Literature dealing with the prevalence of drug use and associated harms, including crime and disease. Includes literature with both domestic and international focus.

Monitoring the supply of cocaine to Europe October 2008
This datasheet provides a short review of key issues relating to how cocaine is manufactured in Latin America and transported to European consumers via the Atlantic, Caribbean and west Africa. It also looks at the destabilising effect of the cocaine trade on producer and transshipment countries. 29-page PDF [EMCDDA]
Drug trafficking as a security threat in West Africa October 2008
According to a new 54-page PDF report, a declining US cocaine market and a rising European one appear to have prompted South American cocaine traffickers to make use of low-governance areas in West Africa as transit zones [UNODC]
New Survey Reveals Steep Drops in Opium Production and Cultivation in Afghanistan October 2008
Official U.S. Government Estimate Shows Potential Opium Production Declines by Almost One-Third; Poppy Cultivation Down 22 Percent since Last Year [ONDCP, USA]
New markets for synthetic drugs [September 2008]
UNODC’s new Global Amphetamine-Type Stimulants Assessment Report warns that synthetic drugs such as ecstasy, amphetamine and methamphetamine – the drugs of modern times – are becoming more popular in developing countries. 128-page PDF [UNODC]
Afghanistan Opium Survey 2008 [August 2008]
Executive Summary. 42-page PDF [UNODC]
Withdrawal Symptoms [August 2008]
Changes in the Southeast Asian drugs market. Drugs & Conflict Debate Papers Nr. 16 [TNI, Netherlands]
Drug Control [August 2008]
Cooperation with Many Major Drug Transit Countries Has Improved, but Better Performance Reporting and Sustainability Plans Are Needed. 59-PDF [GAO, USA]
Indian Country Drug Threat Assessment 2008 [July 2008]
The report focuses on Native American reservations in the contiguous 48 states of the United States [National Drug Intelligence Center, USA]
World Drug Report 2008 [June 2008]
As in previous years, the present Report is based on data obtained primarily from the annual reports questionnaire (ARQ) sent by Governments to UNODC in 2007, supplemented by other sources when necessary and where available Full 8.85 MB PDF [UNODC]
Illicit Drug Data Report 2006-2007 [June 2008]
This report is recognised as one of the most valuable tools for law enforcement agencies, policy and decision makers, research bodies and other stakeholders in combating illicit drugs [Australian Crime Commission]
Coca cultivation in the Andean region
A survey of Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. 134-page PDF [UNODC] [June 2008]
Drugs and Conflict [May 2008]
How the mutual impact of illicit drug economies and violent conflict influences sustainable development, peace and stability [GTZ]
Chemical Reactions [May 2008]
Fumigation: Spreading Coca and Threatening Colombia’s Ecological and Cultural Diversity. 32-page PDF [WOLA]
Beckley report 14 Understanding drug markets and how to influence them [April 2008]
This latest report in the Beckley series looks at the operation of middle-level drug dealers, and how their behaviour is influenced by the activities of the law enforcement agencies. 13-page PDF [IDPC]
Latin American Drugs I: Losing the Fight [March 2008]
Crisis Group’s detailed study is divided into two complementary reports published simultaneously. This report principally examines the scope of the problem, including a detailed examination of cultivation and trafficking. 42-page PDF [International Crisis Group]
Afghanistan – Opium Winter Rapid Assessment Survey [February 2008]
These are order of magnitude figures – the actual harvest will depend on the effectiveness of eradication. The volume of opium production (and eventually heroin) will further depend on the yield, which last year was at a record level. Based on this evidence there is a good chance that the high-water mark reached in 2007 will begin to recede. 46-page PDF [UNODC]
Afghanistan economic incentives and development initiatives tp reduce opium productiomn [February 2008]
This report is about how to progressively reduce over time Afghanistan’s dependence on opium – currently the country’s leading economic activity – by development initiatives and shifting economic incentives toward sustainable legal livelihoods. 126-page PDF [Department for International Development, UK and the World Bank]
2008 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report – Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control [2007]
The INCSR is an annual report by the Department of State to Congress prepared in accordance with the Foreign Assistance Act. It describes the efforts of key countries to attack all aspects of the international drug trade in Calendar Year 2007 [U.S. Department of State]
Afghanistan Opium Survey 2007
Executive Summary. 38-page PDF [UNODC]
Afghanistan Opium Survey 2007
The world’s leading drug producer. 169-page PDF [UNODC]
2008 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report – Volume II: Money Laundering and Financial Crimes [2006]
The INCSR is an annual report by the Department of State to Congress prepared in accordance with the Foreign Assistance Act. It describes the efforts of key countries to attack all aspects of the international drug trade in Calendar Year 2007 [U.S. Department of State]
Drug precursors: internal aspects
Effective control of the chemicals used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances is one of the best ways of combating drug trafficking [Europa]
Drug precursors: external aspects
This Regulation lays down the rules governing the thorough monitoring of the trade in precursor drugs between the European Union (EU) and third countries [Europa]
Monograph # 11 SimDrug: Exploring the complexity of heroin use in Melbourne [December 2005]
This monograph (No. 11) reports on the work of the complex systems scientists at ANU. Complexity Theory is a loose cluster of theories and methodologies aiming at understanding the properties of complex adaptive systems. Complex adaptive systems (CAS) are ones characterized by: emergence; path dependency: non state equilibrium; and adaptation. The heroin drug market fits these characteristics nicely. The features of the agent-based model, called SimDrug, include the spatial environment, time scale, and social agents. SimDrug includes different types of social agents: users, dealers, wholesalers, police constables, and outreach workers. Each type represents a minimum set of characteristics and dynamics that allow the whole artificial population to display most of the properties observed in real societies. The model has proved robust and stable. SimDrug has demonstrated the plausibility of using a multi-agent system model to describe the relationships between heroin users, dealers, their surroundings and the two interventions modelled (outreach workers and police). In future developments, we hope that policy makers will be able to use the model to determine potential scenario’s as a result of their intervention.
Monograph # 9 Heroin markets in Australia: Current understandings and future possibilities[December 2005]
This monograph (No. 09) approaches drug markets from an economic perspective. It outlines central economic concepts in an accessible form for the non-economist, then reviews four key aspects of the Australian heroin drug market. These are: measuring the size of the heroin market; heroin prices; the heroin distribution network (using a risk and prices framework); and the relationship bteween heroin price and harm (in this case overdose). The monograph sets out to summarise the existing information and data, and identify what we don’t know about the heroin drug market. The authors conclude with a number of insights about the heroin market in Australia. We have much information to inform our understanding but it appears to be underutilised. The amount of heroin consumed may be substantially less than is commonly thought (potentially attributable to the heroin ‘shortage’). Price is responsive to market changes – large increases in heroin price occurred with the decreased availability of heroin. The authors also demonstrate a strong relationship between heroin price and non-fatal heroin overdose – as price increases, overdoses decrease. Future research into heroin markets in Australia could provide more detailed examination of causal relationships (and move away from descriptive research).
Monograph #8 A review of approaches to studying illicit drug markets [December 2005]
This Monograph (No. 08) provides a reflective account of the different disciplinary approaches to studying illicit drug markets. The term ‘drug market’ is used widely in illicit drug research, and means different things to different researchers. An economist may have a very specific view of what is meant by a drug market, and that will differ from one held by an ethnographer. The monograph endeavours to describe and explain five different disciplinary approaches to studying drug markets – ethnographic and qualitative approaches; economic approaches; behavioural and psychological research; population-based and survey research; and criminology and law enforcement evaluation. Each discipline has strengths and limitations. I do not argue for the supremacy of one approach, but that we need to appreciate the different approaches and develop better multi-disciplinary models.
Drug Market Analyses
These intelligence bulletins examine the market dynamics and the trafficking, distribution, and abuse patterns associated with cocaine, heroin, marijuana, MDMA, methamphetamine, and other dangerous drugs within United States High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTAS) [NDIC, USA]
Domestic Drug Markets and Prohibition
17-page PDF [Australian Parliamentary Group for Drug Law Reform]
Low-level Heroin Markets – A Case Study Approach
As part of the Scottish Executive’s Drug Misuse Research Programme the Effective Interventions Unit ( EIU) worked with the Scottish Drug Enforcement Agency (SDEA) to develop specific proposals that culminated in an initial research focus on low-level drug markets [Scottish Executive, UK]
Tackling drugs to reduce poverty
The United Nations Office of Drug Control claimed in 2006 that ‘Drug control is working and the world drug problem is being contained’. Yet the scale and diversity of the illicit global drug trade has increased in the last decade, as have rates of drug use in most countries [id21, UK]
U.S. Assistance Has Helped Mexican Counternarcotics Efforts
But Tons of Illicit Drugs Continue to Flow into the United States. 46-page PDF [GAO, USA]
The Chinese Connection: Cross-border Drug Trafficking between Myanmar and China
This report presents findings from a two-year field study of drug trafficking activities between Myanmar (formerly Burma) and China. 118-page PDF [U.S. Department of Justice]
Inquiry into the manufacture, importation and use of amphetamines and other synthetic drugs (AOSD) in Australia
This report provides an overview of the production and consumption of AOSD in Australia and discusses the extent to which organised crime is involved in manufacture and distribution. It examines the National Drug Strategy, reviews its main aims and effectiveness, and provides a brief overview of the key policy and research bodies that oversee and have input into the policy [Australian Policy Online]
Marijuana Production in the United States (2006)
According to US Government estimates domestic marijuana production has increased ten fold over the last 25 years from 1,000 metric tons (2.2 million pounds) in 1981 to 10,000 metric tons (22 million pounds) in 2006. The ongoing proliferation of marijuana cultivation places it beyond the scope of law enforcement capabilities to control and reduce the availability of marijuana to teenagers and young children under existing public policy [DrugScience, USA]
National Drug Threat Assessment 2006 released
The National Drug Threat Assessment 2006 addresses the status and outlook of the drug threat to the United States. It covers the trafficking and abuse patterns associated with cocaine, methamphetamine, marijuana, heroin, MDMA, pharmaceutical drugs, and other dangerous drugs [NDIC, USA]
Despite 2006 witnessing the most intensive use of fumigation in the country’s history, some 157,200 hectares of cultivation areas were detected, 13,200 hectares more than in 2005. Is the fumigation strategy failing? [Transnational Institute]
Opium Rapid Assessment Survey AFGHANISTAN March 2005
Within the framework of its Global Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme (ICMP), UNODC has established an opium monitoring system and conducts annual opium surveys in Afghanistan, the largest centre of illicit opium production in the world. The monitoring system is implemented in cooperation with the Afghan government [United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime]
Drug Situation Report 2005
The Drug Situation Report — 2005 provides a strategic overview of the illicit drug trade in Canada. 32-page PDF [RCMP, Canada]
International Narcotics Control Strategy Report – 2005
Argentina is not a major drug producing country, but it is a transit country for cocaine flowing from neighboring Bolivia, Peru and Colombia primarily destined for Europe. Argentina is also a transit route for Colombian heroin en route to the U.S East Coast (primarily New York)
[Released by the Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs March 2005]
Coca Cultivation in the Andean Region in 2004
UNODC 2005
Colombia coca cultivation survey results: A question of methods
Drug Control
U.S. Assistance Has Helped Mexican Counternarcotics Efforts, but the Flow of Illicit Drugs into the United States Remains High. 29-page PDF [GAO, USA]
U.S. Counternarcotics Strategy for Afghanistan
Compiled by the Coordinator for Counternarcotics and Justice Reform in Afghanistan, Ambassador Thomas A. Schweich, U.S. Department of State
Opium Poppy Free Road Map and Provincial Profiles
This document has been prepared to provide a brief analysis of all Afghan provinces, both in terms of counter-narcotics efforts and rule of law indicators 7.62MB PDF [UNODC]
Cocaine trafficking in West Africa
The threat to stability and development (with special reference to Guinea-Bissau). 41-page PDF [UNODC]
Opium Poppy Free Road Map and Provincial Profiles
This document has been prepared to provide a brief analysis of all Afghan provinces, both in terms of counter-narcotics efforts and rule of law indicators 7.62MB PDF [UNODC]
Overcoming the Obstacles to Establishing a Democratic State in Afghanistan
This paper looks at several of the obstacles to democracy in Afghanistan, including … an endemic culture of corruption, a pervasive narcotics trade and drug trafficking problem. 28-page PDF [Strategic Studies Institute, USA]
Crop spraying: a déjà vu debate
The United States is putting strong pressure on the Afghan government to officially adopt the strategy of eradicating the opium poppy through aerial spraying of the crops with the herbicide glyphosate. 8-page PDF [Transnational Institute, Netherlands]
Coca, Petroleum and Conflict in Cofán Territory
Spraying, displacement and economic interests – Drug Policy Briefing [TNI, Netherlands]
Poppy for medicine project – Technical Dossier for Canada
The Technical Dossier offers the Canadian Government a way to change the course of counter-narcotics policy in Kandahar.. 112-page PDF [Senlis Council]
At a crossroads: Drug Trafficking, Violence and the Mexican State
In this joint WOLA-BFDPP policy brief, the authors provide an overview of current and past drug policies implemented by the Mexican government, with a focus on its law enforcement efforts. 12-page PDF [IDPC]
The Economic Impact of the Illicit Drug Industry
In December 2003 the TNI Crime & Globalisation project hosted a seminar on The Economic Impact of the Illicit Drug Industry. The goal of the seminar was to re-view the substance of the existing figures of the global business volume of the illegal drug industry and the notion of where the illegal proceeds of the industry are going. Issues discussed included: the size of the illicit drug economy, money laundering, the flows, investments and presence of drugs money in the legal economy and its alleged funding of international terrorism.
Transnational Institute
Licit and illicit cultivation statistics
[CentralBureau of narcotics, India]
Afghanistan’s Drug Industry
Counter-Narcotics Law Enforcement Efforts in Afghanistan Need to Focus on Higher-End Actors of the Drug Industry [World Bank]
Coca cultivation in the Andean region
A survey of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. 141-page PDF [UNODC]
Opium Rapid Assessment Survey AFGHANISTAN March 2005
UNODC 2005
Downward Spiral Banning Opium in Afghanistan and Birma
Opium farmers in Afghanistan and Burma are coming under huge pressure as local authorities implement bans on the cultivation of poppy. Banning opium has an immediate and profound impact on the livelihoods of more than 4 million people
TNI Drugs & Conflict Debate Paper 12 June 2005 [Transnational Institute]
Afghanistan’s Drug Industry: Structure, Functioning, Dynamics, and Implications for Counter-Narcotics Policy
Efforts to combat opium have achieved only limited success and have lacked sustainability [World Bank]
U.S. Nonmilitary Assistance to Colombia Is Beginning to Show Intended Results, but Programs Are Not Readily Sustainable
Despite the progress made by the three nonmilitary assistance programs, Colombia and the United States continue to face long-standing management and financial challenges.
[U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO). July 2004]
Opium Licensing in Afghanistan: Its Desirability and Feasibility
A US policy paper assessing the viability of licensing opium for medical use in Afghanistan. 17-page PDF [Brookings Institution, USA]
Poppy for Medicine
Licensing poppy for the production of essential medicines: an integrated counter-narcotics, development, and counter-insurgency model for Afghanistan. 112-page PDF [Transnational Institute]
The policing implications of cannabis, amphetamine and other illicit drug use in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities
Increasing cannabis availability in rural and remote areas has extended a thriving illicit drug trade to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander settlements in some of Australia’s most isolated regions. 178-page PDF [National Drug Law Enforcement Research Fund, Australia]
Interdiction Efforts in Central America Have Had Little Impact on the Flow of Drugs
The supply of illegal drugs reaching the United States via Central America continues virtually uninterrupted despite years of U.S. drug interdiction efforts.

Letter Report, 08/02/94, GAO/NSIAD-94-233 [Global Security.Org]

Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme (ICMP)
Surveys listed for Andes, Bolivia, Colombia, Lao PDR, Morocco, Myanmar, and Peru [United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime]
The opium economy in Afghanistan
226-page PDF [UNODC]
Drugs and crime trends in Europe and beyond
Europe remains a destination of choice for international drug traffickers [UNODC]
Poppies for Peace
Reforming Afghanistan’s Opium Industry. 13-page PDF [The Washington Quarterly, USA]
Air Bridge Denial Program in Colombia Has Implemented New Safeguards, but Its Effect on Drug Trafficking Is Not Clear
In the 1990s, the United States operated a program in Colombia and Peru called Air Bridge Denial (ABD). The ABD program targeted drug traffickers that transport illicit drugs through the air by forcing down suspicious aircraft, using lethal force if necessary. The program was suspended in April 2001 when a legitimate civilian aircraft was shot down in Peru and two U.S. citizens were killed. The program was restarted in Colombia in August 2003 after additional safeguards were established. To date, the United States has provided about $68 million in support and plans to provide about $26 million in fiscal year 2006. We examined whether the ABD program’s new safeguards were being implemented and its progress in attaining U.S. and Colombian objectives. [GAO, USA]
Impact assessment of crop eradication in Afghanistan and lessons learned from latin America and south east Asia
This Phase Two paper of the Feasibility Study On Opium Licensing in Afghanistan for the Production of Morphine and Other Essential Medicines assesses the impact of current and future eradication efforts in Afghanistan while drawing parallels with the impact of similar policies already carried out in South East Asian and Latin America [Senlis Council]
Afghanistan ‘ s opium drug economy, Vol. 1 of 1
In conditions of lawlessness and impoverishment, opium has become Afghanistan ‘ s leading economic activity, accounting for one third of (opium inclusive) GDP in 2003, and even more so in 2004. The opium boom has been stimulated by a decline in supply to the world market from other sources, as well as growing demand from new markets, by Afghanistan ‘ s comparative advantage as a producer, and by conditions arising from the war – the collapse of governance, rural pauperization, and the trade in drugs for arms
Christopher Ward, William Byrd

Report No: 31149 World Bank 2004

Drugs and development in Afghanistan, Vol. 1 of 1
This paper analyzes the linkages between drugs and development in Afghanistan. It argues that the opium economy-including its nexus with insecurity, warlords, state weakness, and poor governance-constitutes a central development problem for the country
Christopher Ward, William Byrd

Report No: 30903 World Bank 2004

Colombia: Coca Cultivation Survey
For the fifth time the Colombian Government and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, produced a joint annual survey on coca cultivation in Colombia, using remote sensing technology and ensuring a high level of reliability and transparency.
[United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and Government of Colombia (GOC) June 2004]
Rural finance in Afghanistan and the challenge of the opium economy, Vol. 1 of 1
The workshop was intended to explore and address the issue of opium credit and indebtedness as well as the development of rural finance more generally and the role of national development programs in this regard. The objective was to identify what longer-term developments in rural finance are needed, what specific steps can be taken in the immediate future, and how synergies with other national development programs can be developed

Byrd, William Goeldner, Karri A. Kloeppinger-Todd, Renate Maimbo, Samuel Mansfield, David Pearce, Douglas Radcliffe, David Rasmussen, Stephen Ward, Christopher Zeballos, Erick Zia, Mohammad Ehsan

Report No: 33275 World Bank 2004

Afghanistan Farmers Intention Survey 2003/2004
Farmers’ Intentions Survey 2003/2004 AFGHANISTAN [United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime]
“Afghanistan – Continuing Challenges”
Last year in Afghanistan, according to the UN Office of Drugs and Crime, (UNODC), 1.7 million people were directly engaged in producing more than 3,600 metric tons of opium three quarters of the world’s illicit opium production. In a UNODC survey, 69% of last year’s poppy farmers stated that they intend to increase their production, and 43% of those who have not been growing will start cultivating in 2004. Afghanistan is in clear and present danger of descending from a narco-economy into a narco-state
International Crisis Group.12 May 2004
Coca or Death? Cocalero Movements in Peru and Bolivia
Following Bolivia’s 2002 parliamentary elections, the success of the political party headed by cocalero leader Evo Morales, rekindled debate regarding cocaleroorganisations in the Andes and their vindications. Disinformation around these organisations has contributed to a rise in terms like narcoguerrilleros and narcoterroristas, etc. being applied to the various cocalero peasant movements
TNI Drugs & Conflict Debate Papers 10, April 2004 [Transnational Institute]
The Economic Impact of the Illicit Drug Industry
Goal of the seminar was to assess the global business volume of the illegal drug industry and to look where the illegal proceeds of the industry are going. Issues discussed included: the size of the illicit drug economy and the flows, investments and collusion of drugs money in the legal economy and its alleged funding of international terrorism
Report TNI Seminar 5-6 December 2003 [Transnational Institute]
World Trends in the Production, Trafficking and Consumption of Illicit Drug
This paper attempts to examine how world drug trends have changed since the last of the UN Conventions was agreed in 1988 and, at this mid-point between 1998 and the target year of 2008, examines whether trends in cultivation, trafficking and consumption are going down as envisaged
Cindy Fazey

Forward Thinking on Drugs 2003

Cross Purposes Alternative Development and Conflict in Colombia
One of the greatest challenges in Colombia today is how to meet alternative development objectives in the midst of war. “Alternative development” refers in this context to the creation of alternative livelihoods for illicit crop farmers
Drugs & Conflict Debate Paper 7, June 2003 [Transnational Institute]
Drugs and Conflict in Burma (Myanmar) Dilemmas for Policy Responses
Burma is on the brink of yet another humanitarian crisis. In the Kokang region, an opium ban was enforced last year, and by mid-2005 no more poppy growing will be allowed in the Wa region. Banning opium from these regions in Shan State adds another chapter to the long and dramatic history of drugs, conflict and human suffering in the country
Drugs & Conflict Debate Paper 9, December 2003 [Transnational Institute]
The Opium Economy in Afghanistan: An International Problem
UNODC 2003 ISBN 92-1-148157-0
A Model of Chaotic Drug Markets and Their Control
Drug markets are often described informally as being chaotic, and there is a tendency to believe that control efforts can make things worse, not better, at least in some circumstances. This paper explores the idea that such statements might be literally true in a mathematical sense by considering a discrete-time model of populations of drug users and drug sellers for which initiation into either population is a function of relative numbers of both populations
Doris A. Behrens, Jonathan P. Caulkins, Gustav Feichtinger

Carnegie Mellon, Heinz School 2002-8, Jul 2002

Illicit drugs and economic development
INCB 2002
National Threat Assessments
NDIC’s annual National Drug Threat Assessment gives policymakers and counterdrug executives a timely, predictive report on the threat of drugs, gangs, and violence. We synthesize the views of local, state, regional, and federal agencies to produce a comprehensive picture of this threat.

U S Department of Justice

The Sydney methamphetamine market
Patterns of supply, use, personal harms and social consequences (PDF) [NDLERF, Australia]
A Failed Balance Alternative Development and Eradication
In 1961, the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs prohibited planting crops having no medical or scientific purpose, fixing a period of 15 years –for opium– and 25 years – for coca– as deadlines for their ultimate extinction. Those targets were clearly not met. In 1998, ignoring decades of lack of success in addressing the issue of illicit crops, the UN set the year 2008 as yet another deadline by which to eliminate coca and opium. At the UN Special Session on drugs, AD was identified as a key instrument to be used in fulfilling this objective, as part of an integral anti-drugs strategy
Drugs & Conflict Debate Paper 4, March 2002
Drugs and Insurgents in Colombia
A Regional Conundrum
Research brief RB-69, 2001 RAND
Colombian Labyrinth: The Synergy of Drugs and Insurgency and Its Implications for Regional Stability NGO
Argues that U.S. policy toward Colombia has been driven to a large extent by counter-narcotics considerations, but the evolving situation in that South American country confronts the United States with as much of a national security as a drug policy problem
Angel Rabasa, Peter ChalkAngelRabasa, Peter Chalk

MR-1339-AF, 2001 RAND

Merging Wars Afghanistan, Drugs and Terrorism
Today, the two major producers of opium poppy and coca, Afghanistan and Colombia, are in the midst of shifting counterdrug strategies. In this issue we will look at the case of Afghanistan, analysing the UN International Drug Control Programme’s (UNDCP) ill fated interventions. And while international attention is focused on Afghanistan, the linkage of drugs and terrorism is endangering the troubled peace talks between the government and the FARC guerrilla in Colombia
Drugs & Conflict Debate Paper 3, November 2001 [Transnational Institute]
Fumigation and Conflict in Colombia In the Heat of the Debate
Colombia began an intensive campaign of massive aerial spraying in December 2000, under the aegis of Plan Colombia. The programme has set in motion strong opposition by the peasant and indigenous communities involved and national and international organisations from civil society. The number of voices speaking out against using chemical herbicides to eradicate illicit crops has grown spectacularly this year, fostering an even broader debate about this Latin American country’s entire drug policy
Drugs & Conflict Debate Paper 2, September 2001 [Transnational Institute]
Europe and Plan Colombia
This first issue is devoted to the controversies that have arisen around Plan Colombia. It is released at this particular moment to inform discussions on supporting the peace process in Colombia around the third round of the international donor conference in Brussels
Drugs & Conflict Debate Paper 1, April 2001 [Transnational Institute]
Vicious Circle The Chemical and Biological “War on Drugs”
Aerial fumigations with herbicides of drug crops in Colomba set in motion a vicious circle of human, social and environmental destruction. In Vicious Circle – The Chemical and Biological ‘War on Drugs’, TNI-fellow Martin Jelsma describes how in the course of the cycle human rights are violated, the legitimacy of the state is eroded, alternative development is aborted, peasant support for the guerrilla increases, the war extends to new areas, and the War on Drugs is entangled with counterinsurgency objectives
Transnational Institute, Amsterdam, March 2001
Middle market drug distribution
This report attempts to describe how drugs are moved from importation to street level in the UK, by whom and for what profit. It represents the first effort to map out the ‘middle levelsof the UK’s drug markets
Geoffrey Pearson (Goldsmiths College, University of London) and Dick Hobbs (University of Durham)

Home Office Research Study 227 2001

Sizing the UK market for illicit drugs 2001
This report proposes a methodology for estimating the size of the market for drugs in the UK, which is based upon using available data sources on prevalence and consumption patterns of different types of drug user
Edward Bramley-Harker (National Economic Research Associates)

Home Office RDS Occasional Paper No 74 ISBN 1 84082 695 9

Alternative Development in the Andean Area – The UNDCP experience
UNDCP Vienna, August 2001
Alternative Development: Sharing Good Practices, Facing Common Problems
UNDCP Regional Centre for East Asia and the Pacific, July 2001
The Australian heroin drought and its implications for drug policy
The extent to which individuals who are detained by police are drug users is a matter of policy significance, since drug using offenders commit disproportionately more crime than their non-drug using colleagues. In this study the level and type of drug use among a sample of detainees from two local area commands in Sydney are examined. The study validates self reported drug use with urinalysis results
Don Weatherburn, Craig Jones, Karen Freeman and Toni Makkai

Australian Institute of Criminology 2001 ISBN 0 7313 2633 4; ISSN 1030-1046

The Drug War in the Skies. The US “Air Bridge Denial” Strategy. The Success of a Failure
The purpose of this report is to evaluate the effectiveness and impacts of one of the key US supply side-interdiction programs in the War on Drugs in Latin America. This strategy, known as “Air Bridge Denial”, seeks to reduce the amount of cocaine entering the US and its domestic consumption by blocking the transport of cocaine and its precursors in the Andean-Amazonic r
Edited by Theo Roncken TNI/AcciónAndina, May 1999 [Transnational Institute]
Reluctant Recruits The US Military and the War on Drugs
Among the vast array of US government agencies involved in drug control efforts, the Department of Defense (DOD) is on the front line of the war on drugs in Latin America, a role mandated by the 1989 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA). The act designated DOD as the “single lead agency” for the detection and monitoring of illicit drug shipments into the United States. Congress backed this directive with dollars, quadrupling DOD’s counter-drug budget between Fiscal Year (FY)1988 and FY1992, when it peaked at $1.22 billion. Billions more have been spent since then
Peter Zirnite WOLA (Washington Office on Latin America), Washington DC, August 1997 [Transnational Institute]
What Price Data Tell Us About Drug Markets
This paper reviews empirical evidence on drug prices and discusses implications for understanding of drug markets and for policy
Jonathan P. Caulkins, Peter Reuter

Carnegie Mellon, Heinz School 1998-7, Mar 1998

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